Author Archives: Christina

The Story of the Man Who Was the Most Successful African-American Entrepreneur, and Why It Matters Today


A version of this essay was given as a talk at the Rethink Education Summit on February 24th, 2016, at Blue Hill Stone Barns, Tarrytown, NY.

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 I am the daughter of an icon. Reginald F. Lewis, the first African-American to build a billion-dollar business. He was the first person of color to break into the elite boys’ club of Wall Street boardrooms.

In 1987 he engillion-dollar offshore leveraged buyout to purchase TLC Beatrice International, a sprawling global conglomerate of food companies and brands ranging from an ice cream company in Spain, La Menorquina, a potato chip company in Ireland, Tayto, supermarkets in France, Franprix and Leaderprice, and others. His company was the largest African American-owned business by far, according to Black Enterprise magazine-fourteen times largest by revenues than its closest competitor, Johnson Publishing Company.

It’s hard to convey how key a figure he was and is in the black community. He was the single largest donor to Jesse Jackson both early in his career and in Jesse’s historic campaign for the Presidency. He was perhaps the 1st African-American listed on the Forbes 400, a generous philanthropist, donating millions to Howard University and Harvard Law School. His life arc was and is a shining example for people of color of what had work can achieve, proof that there is hope.

We need hope. And we also need to keep fighting. Schools are more segregated today than they were thirty years ago. African-Americans are underrepresented in Congress, among professional workers, among Oscar nominees. The wealth gap between blacks and whites is frighteningly wide: $11,000 for a black household and nearly $142,000 for a white household. The gap among Latinos is nearly as wide.

Wow. Right? I mean, wow.

My father died when I was 12, in 1993. Losing a parent so young is always hard. The full extent of my loss and grief would only become clear to me as an adult. But what his death did is it sent me searching for a sense of the man that he was. He had become a towering, even godlike figure to my child mind. Who was he really as a person and what made him so special? His life is one of the greatest rags to riches stories in America. But what lies beneath? What was the back-story?

My father was born in 1942 in segregated Baltimore. His mother was 17 years old. He grew up in his grandparents’ house, on an unpaved alley in East Baltimore. Many homes had outhouses in their backyards. He attended segregated schools through college. He played in a segregated little league. He had to sit in the balcony at movie theaters (not that they went to the movies). At his Catholic elementary school, one of the nuns told him he should become a carpenter, to stop dreaming of becoming a lawyer.

These beginnings have some of the tropes of black family dysfunction, and all the force of the American Dream mythology of the self-made man, but don’t be fooled: my great-grandparents had 8 children who doted on my father as their new youngest sibling, and my great-grandfather, Sam, worked as a waiter at fancy hotels and country clubs. The neighborhood was rough. The times were unjust. But, my father had a family and a community. His mother re-married, giving my father five siblings.

Outside of family, he found other angels who saw his potential and helped him rise to help him rise. A few years ago, I began researching for a memoir I wanted to write called Lonely at the Top—a personal journey to understand the legacy I had inherited. As part of this research I met Frank Sander, an 85-year-old retired Harvard Law School professor, also a Holocaust survivor who clerked on the Supreme Court when they decided Brown v Board.   He was the driving force behind the creation of a summer program to try to diversify Harvard.  It was through this program that my father was able to gain admittance in 1965 to the law school, giving him the credentials he needed to access the private sector.

My father had always told me that his time at Harvard Law School opened the world to him. He had always wanted to be a lawyer. It was not only the first white school he had attended, it also exposed him to an elite network, educated him, and gave him a credential, a stamp that members of society in 1968 took seriously. Graduating from there is how HE could be taken seriously.

After graduating from law school he became a first year associate at a white-shoe law firm in New York and from there he began his climb into Wall Street’s inner circle. His world once all black, was now all white.

My father was at the vanguard of this nationwide struggle to integrate the American private sector. History teaches us about the fight to integrate schools and the military.  But, there’s an untold history that is still going on and that is the integration of corporate America. And my father, before he died, believed that the next phase of the civil rights movement was economic. So did Martin Luther King, Jr. It was, after all, called a March on Washington for JOBS and Freedom.

And here was the idea.

I began to wonder, is there some new frontier? Is there some new part of the economy that has not yet integrated? Is there an area where a talented young man like my father would not be able to succeed because it was still closed? The answer came immediately: Tech. Tech today is like Wall Street in the 1960s: an insider-y, clubby world built through an informal network of people we know, people who have the right credentials. Jobs aren’t advertised and the people who drive the industry don’t consider themselves exclusionary, but rather holders of a proud, respected tradition.

And so, I realized there are youth out there now who are not being tapped. There are youth out there who are so unbelievably talented but startup founders won’t hire them, venture capitalists won’t invest in them, because they don’t have the right credentials.

And, you know, I’m a doer. My father didn’t raise me to sit on the sidelines. To paraphrase the bible, those to whom much is given, much is expected. Four years ago, I was a professional journalist, working entirely in the realm of ideas–a professional observer. Yet, this problem–the lack of diversity in tech–felt so urgent to me. But I didn’t do anything about it; I just watched. And saw programs starting for girls, but none for boys. And as the months passed I thought, well, maybe I should work on this. Maybe if I don’t do it, no one else will. Or at least, not as well.

So we’ve built a program that would find and help young men like my father.

The fight had to be passed on. Hope has to be met with an effort to create the conditions to fulfill that hope. The arc of the moral universe doesn’t bend toward justice without people trying to guide its curve. My great-grandparents tried to bend it just a little bit, for my grandmother, and she in turn for my father, and he for everyone he could. Professor Sander at Harvard bent it for him and for other young black students. What we’ve built at All Star Code bends it. And we believe that the young men we’ve met are well on their way to realizing that hope, and creating more. That they are the next step in the arc.

The core tenet of our program, All Star Code, is that we aren’t just teaching computer science. We are setting students up with the skills, networks, and system know-how they need to be successful in the tech industry and overall workforce. Throughout our programming, All Star Code students improve soft skills, develop personal narratives, and learn the principles of entrepreneurship. All Star Code is a powerful intervention that opens our students’ minds to what is possible.

Speaking of students… check out Djassi’s recent speech from the ReThink Education Summit.

Christina Lewis Halpern, Founder and Executive Director of All Star Code, delivered the above speech to a group of tech entrepreneurs at the ReThink Education Summit on February 24th, 2016.



An Exciting New Chapter

Dear Friends and Supporters,

Since the founding of All Star Code three years ago, we have exposed over 500 high school students to careers in computing in New York City and pioneered a radical idea: that young men of color are an untapped talent pool that deserves investment. With our community partners and widespread civic support, we have demonstrated a compelling need for high-quality tech entrepreneurship education for young men, but I know that we can grow faster and capitalize on our unique model in the next three years.

To realize our full potential, I believe we need to hire a new Executive Director. Personally, it is a tremendous privilege and honor to have grown All Star Code to the point where we are able to hire a person with the skillset to significantly strengthen and grow our organization. I am positive this transition is a byproduct of our success and that the right individual will enable us to scale with quality and sustainability and provide an even bigger platform to advocate for equal access to economic opportunity.

I remain committed to helping ASC achieve its goals as its Founder and Board Chair and will be working very closely with the Executive Director. Please see below for details on both roles.

In the months ahead I will be focused on leading the search for the new Executive Director. Please let me know if you have any questions or candidate suggestions. You can also direct recommendations and questions to Rebecca Meyer at On-Ramps, our search firm partner.

My Best,

Christina Lewis Halpern

Highlights of Executive Director role (Full job description):

  • Craft a compelling vision for All Star Code’s impact at scale
  • Oversee program development, day-to-day operations, and annual budget process
  • Build, coach, and manage a high-performing team
  • Foster and enhance ASC’s entrepreneurial, positive, and diverse culture
  • Act as primary liaison to the Board of Directors and participate on the Executive Committee
  • Work with Founder/Board Chair to recruit and secure Board and Advisory Board Members
  • Serve as the external face of ASC
  • Develop and cultivate a deep and thriving community of major donors and 
  • Responsible for the ultimate success of ASC

  • Harvard

    Announcing Our 2014 Annual Report

    IMG_1592Nearly two years ago, fourteen-year-old Mamadou Diallo had a great idea. After learning some rudimentary coding at school, Mamadou wanted some work experience at a tech company to further his skills and knowledge. Being a motivated self-starter, Mamadou, who was raised in Guinea, the seventh of nine children, sought help by posting in the New York Tech Meetup, a free-wheeling online forum for thousands of tech professionals.

    “My name is Mamadou Diallo and I am 14 years old and in the 10th grade. All I’m asking is for someone to let me volunteer or help out at a start up or company. I don’t want to receive any pay.”

    Mamadou received some advice, most of it intangible, and all of it ultimately unhelpful.

    Mamadou failed to get the internship offer he was seeking. Yet, as we teach our students, we celebrate his failure because it led to opportunity. A few months later, I spotted his email and recruited him to attend All Star Code’s Fall 2013 launch event at Spotify.

    Today, not only is sixteen-year old Mamadou armed with an ASC-provided laptop, but he is one bad-ass coder too. He builds websites. He is paid $10 an hour to teach coding to middle school students. And he is a winner of the 2015 Princeton Prize for race relations for his work co-founding The Young Hackers, a student-run organization incubated by ASC that fosters a new generation of programmers. I am tremendously proud of Mamadou, and I thank our entire staff for supporting his and his fellow students’ learning and growth.

    Despite his hard work and tireless dedication, Mamadou would have experienced much frustration breaking into the tech industry without the help of All Star Code. We accelerated his growth. We fostered his relationship with his teammates. And to bring it full circle, he is now one of All Star Code’s top recruiters, bringing friends of his to our offices to shake our hands and fill out applications.

    In our first year of operation, I am thrilled to share that All Star Code successfully hit all its intended milestones. In two years, we have evolved from an unproven and radical idea with a lone founder into a recognized leader in the tech inclusion and economic justice movement with a core team of six.

    We remain early stage, but demand for our program is strong. We received a combined 350+ applications for our unique coding and tech entrepreneurship training courses. Our flagship program, the six-week Summer Intensive, proved an unqualified success with 100% of graduates planning to pursue a tech-related career post-program and 95% now strongly considering a career in computer science. Overall, we have reached over 200 students through our workshops and other tech-related events. That impact is extraordinary in such a short timeframe. It is a testament to all the help we have received from you, our donors and supporters.

    The tech industry is growing faster than ever, but tech talent is becoming more difficult to find. There will be over 1.4 million new tech jobs by 2020, and by 2040, Blacks and Latinos will make up 42% of the population. And yet African-Americans currently comprise less than 1% of startup founding teams, a critical catalyst of job growth and wealth creation. All Star Code has significantly raised awareness about the lack of Blacks and Latinos in the tech sector, the need for dedicated programs focused on young men of color, and the importance of teaching not just coding, but a shift in mindset from consumer to “hacker” as well.

    We are currently processing what we learned from our pilot year, and moving forward with exciting new programming. In 2015, you will see us expand our footprint in NYC, growing our Summer Intensive alumni to a total of 60, and raising our total student reach to 800 via our one-day workshops and Hackathons. We will also refine our program model and continue to support our graduates over the next several years. Once you are an All Star, you’re with us for life.

    Your support has enabled an extraordinary investment in our boys. Please continue to invest in us and spread our message far and wide. We want to reach more untapped talent, and keep our Summer Intensive entirely free. We cannot do this without you.

    Take a look at our 2014 Annual Report HERE.

    The Year Ahead

    February brings a cold snap, but our team is humming to begin our 2015 Summer Intensive recruitment drive. We are thrilled that hundreds of people from parents, teachers, school principals and elected officials are clamoring for their youth to be included in our groundbreaking programming.

    Personally, I want to highlight some of our most exciting developments moving into 2015.

    We’ve had over 76 young high school boys of color participate in our all-day workshops, which we use to generate awareness and interest in our 6-week Summer Intensive program. Over 60 tech professionals have served as mentors to our boys, helping them deepen their knowledge of coding and the careers in the tech industry. And nearly 40 tech companies, schools and organizations have joined our ecosystem as community partners – ensuring that our students receive industry exposure, training, mentor support, and educational resources.

    After exposure to our workshops, mentors, and community partners, over 95% of our boys, when surveyed, stated that our program led them to consider strongly pursuing a tech career path.

    Our pilot 2014 Summer Intensive is now a proven success, with an independent research firm confirming that we have increased our students technical skills, entrepreneurial confidence and desire to pursue a career in the technology industry. All 100% of our graduates last summer are now planning to pursue a tech-related career post-program, and 95% are now strongly considering a career in computer science. We feel these results are extraordinary, and we’re excited to share our story with the world as we expand in 2015.

    Based on these successes, we are now investing significant time and resources into formalizing our Intensive curriculum. Our Intensive is a scalable program, but curriculum investment is required to make it replicable.

    We have great plans for the Intensive this year. By the end of 2015, we plan to have graduated at least 60 students through our Intensive program. For context, only 68 African American students passed the AP Computer Science exam in New York State last year, with a passing rate of 33.8%. Our work can make meaningful change in our space.

    Most excitingly, our first class of All Stars is doing extremely well. Our students have attended numerous coding events on their own, including Penn Apps, a monthly event at Spotify, and My Brother’s Keeper Hackathon in Philadelphia. One of our students won a $1,500 prize at a Hackathon organized by our community partner Digital Undivided. They are also very actively participating in a shared Facebook group.

    Two of our students have even created their own organization, the Young Hackers. Austin and Mamadou, both 16, met during our Intensive and decided to organize a Meetup for high school students. With support from our instructors and team, they ran a hugely successful hackathon for 100 students hosted by our site sponsor, Alley NYC. Six months later, the Young Hackers have partnered with numerous coding education programs, including our curriculum partner, Flatiron School, to run events.

    Giving motivated but disconnected students the skills, network and exposure to integrate into the technology sector is at the crux of our programming. And we are gratified to see our unique curriculum and approach bearing fruit so soon.

    On the other hand, several of our students have not been able to participate in some fantastic opportunities because they could not afford the travel costs to the event. We have many more good stories to share as our alumni take flight, but we are also mindful that our program must be a multi-year commitment. To truly be an ecosystem of access, we must secure new funding so that we can continue to support our All Stars. Soon, they’ll be able to find employment at technology companies, and start supporting the next generation of All Stars in return.


    PS. On the personal front, my husband and I welcomed our baby daughter Sasha to the world in November. She is providing joy to us and a lot of amusement to her older brother. Bringing forth a new life to the world grounds me and reminds me that while we should remember and learn from the past our eyes must stay on the future, because that is where our potential lies.

    © Natalie Keyssar 2013 for All Star Code. All rights reserved.

    Invitation To Commencement + SI Week 3/4 Highlights


    Dear friends,

    I’m pleased to announce our Commencement Science Fair, to be held at the Microsoft offices in Times Square next Thursday, August 14th. Join us as we conclude our first annual Summer Intensive Program and welcome our All Stars into the ASC ecosystem. It will be an evening of great conversation, demo presentations, light refreshments, and joyous celebration.

    For those of you who have been with us since the beginning nearly two years ago, I can promise you that what you’ll see at our Commencement Science Fair will fulfill the vision I laid out to you at the start. For new friends, this is a great opportunity to see everything we’ve been up to in one evening.

    Feel free to forward this e-mail to hiring partners, potential donors, and journalists as well, and help us get the word out to influencers who can help us build our movement.

    Space is limited. RSVP HERE.







    As the All Stars put the finishing touches on their projects for next week’s Commencement Science Fair at Microsoft, a few more exciting site visits remain, including a trip to AOL’s offices tomorrow. This site visit will include an office tour, as well as a panel discussion moderated by Suzanna Lindbergh, VP of Buzz Marketing. Panelists will include Anil Kadimesetty, Manager of the Test Engineering Team at The Huffington Post, and Lainie Rosenthal, Sr. Communications Manager for AOL Advertising.





    august07Arun Alagappan, President of Advantage Testing, encouraged the All Stars to “find their clocks”, and pursue things they love.


    Baratunde Thurston, Comedian, Author, and Entrepreneur, spoke to the All Stars with candor and humor about what it’s like to sometimes be the only man of color in the class.


    Dan Rodriguez, VP of Tech at Admit Advantage, as well as a black belt, base jumper, and techie all in one, talked about failure and the importance of pursuing different interests.


    Signe Harriday, a multi-disciplinary artist and teacher, and one of our Hacking Success co-facilitators, worked with the All Stars on creating and rehearsing their elevator pitches.




    The All Stars visited GLG’s new home at One Grand Central Place, where they toured the offices and met President and CEO Alexander Saint-Amand.


    The All Stars also visited LinkedIn’s offices in the Empire State Building, where they built LinkedIn profiles, practiced their elevator pitches with a diverse panel of creatives and engineers, and checked out the view of New York City from the Observation Deck on the 86th floor!



    Two of our All Stars, Austin and Nikolas, brought their ASC Summer Benefit project to the Children’s Museum of The East End’s Family Fair. Their project, an interactive soccer match that has guests controlling robotic finches using remote-controlled gloves, was a huge hit. Thanks to Steve Long and CMEE for inviting us to participate!